Cold Weather Operations

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Extended knowledge for pilots operating outside normal temperature limits, this course discusses hazards and factors that lead to the accumulation of contamination. Considerations related to aircraft ground operations during cold weather. The key concepts relating to airframe ground anti-icing and de-icing procedures and in-flight aircraft operation during cold weather. The course presented in 4 major modules, each module covers specific topics as explained below.

Course Modules:

Duration: 1h:05m

Flight Crew: Initial/Conversion/Recurrent

Compliance: The Association of European Airlines (AEA) & ICAO Doc 9640-AN/940

  1. Module (1): Hazards and Factors.
  2. Module (2): Ground Operations.
  3. Module (3): Ground De-Icing.
  4. Module (4): Airborne Operations.

Please see below for "Topics Covered".

Here is how you achieve your certification

Training Modules

1h:05m web-based training of 4 modules, must be taken in sequence to satisfy compliance.

Practice Exercise

Practical verbal exercise to recap eLearning, real person voice guidance with multiple-choice questions.

Competency Test

Final assessment, 20 multiple choice questions randomly presented out of a pool of questions with a passing grade of 75%.


Competency certificate is awarded upon achieving the passing grade.

Topics Covered:

  • Hazards & factors that lead to the accumulation of contamination on aircraft critical surfaces.
  • Conditions conducive to the formation of critical surface contamination.
  • Aircraft ground operations during cold weather.
  • Impact on the functioning of the flight controls.
  • Engine behaviour during start during cold weather.
  • Runway contamination and operational limits.
  • The key concepts relating to airframe ground anti-icing and de-icing procedures.
  • Anti-Icing/De-icing fluid types and application.
  • Aircraft de-icing/anti-icing policies and procedures, including new procedures and lessons learned.
  • Understanding Holdover time concept and values.
  • The aerodynamic effects of ice accumulation.
  • Controllability issues related to flight in icing conditions.

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